How to Write a Summary of an Article? Ethical Lens In reviewing my ethical lens inventory I have many faults and many advantages when it comes to the way I learn. My personal preferred lens is rights and responsibility, which means I use rationality to determine my duties as well as the rules that each person should follow.
And yet, after giving an inventory of the historical facts of crisis — homes lost, jobs shed, businesses shuttered — Obama added a qualifier: He sought to convey to the American public that he recognizes their present conditions of life as entailing an experience of crisis.
His secular narrative of human history is conjugated with a Christian narrative of witnessing. And yet it echoes secular accounts in the social sciences that attempt to relate the ways in which history can be characterized as crisis, the ways that social life can be said to be in crisis, and the ways that crisis becomes an imperative, or a device for understanding how to act effectively in situations that belie, for the actors, a sense of possibility see Mbembe and Roitman But the question arises: How did crisis, once a signifier for a critical, decisive moment, come to be construed as a protracted historical and experiential condition?
The very idea of crisis as a condition suggests an ongoing state of affairs. But can one speak of a state of enduring crisis?
Is this not an oxymoron? Crisis is an omnipresent sign in almost all forms of narrative today; it is mobilized as the defining category of our contemporary situation. The recent bibliography in the social sciences and popular press is vast; crisis texts are a veritable industry. Rather than essentialize it so as to make better use of it, I seek to understand the kinds of work the term crisis is or is not doing in the construction of narrative forms.
Likewise, I am not concerned to demonstrate that crisis signifies something new in contemporary narrative accounts or that it now has a novel status in a history of ideas.
Similarly, I will not offer a review of the literature on crisis, nor will I show how contemporary usages of the term crisis are wrong and hence argue for a true, or more correct meaning.
Such moments of truth might be defined as turning points in history, when decisions are taken or events are decided, thus establishing a particular teleology.
As a category denoting a moment of truth in these ways, and despite presumptions that crisis does not imply, in itself, a definite direction of change, the term crisis signifies a diagnostic of the present; it implies a certain telos — that is, it is inevitably though most often implicitly directed toward a norm.
Evoking crisis entails reference to a norm because it requires a comparative state for judgment: That question evokes the significance of crisis as an axiological problem, or the questioning of the epistemological or ethical grounds of certain domains of life and thought.
Koselleck maintains that, by the end of the eighteenth century, crisis is the basis for the claim that one can judge history by means of a diagnosis of time. This claim and this judgment entail a specific historical consciousness, which posits history as a temporality upon which one can act.
In this way, crisis achieves the status of a historico-philosophical concept; it is the means by which history is located, recognized, comprehended, and even posited.
Moreover, as I elaborate below, crisis is judgment: And it equally serves expectations for world-immanent justice, or the faith that history is the ultimate form of judgment.
By way of response, I consider how crisis evokes a moral demand for a difference between the past and the future such that prognosis and the very apprehension of history are defined by the negative occupation of an immanent world: Crisis is at the basis of social and critical theory insofar as it signifies the dissonance between morality and progress, knowledge and interests, and the limits of intelligibility: Thus crisis serves the practice of unveiling latencies; it is a distinction that transcends oppositions and dichotomies.My Ethical Lens Inventory told me that my personal preferred lens is the rights-responsibility and results lens.
I balance reasoning skills with my intuition to determine how to fulfill my duties while achieving the greatest good for each individual.
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