Essays on the Writing and Life.
See Article History Censorship, the changing or the suppression or prohibition of speech or writing that is deemed subversive of the common good.
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It occurs in all manifestations of authority to some degree, but in modern times it has been of special importance in its relation to government and the rule of law. That officer, who conducted the census, regulated the morals of the citizens counted and classified.
But, however honourable the origins of its name, censorship itself is today generally regarded as a relic of an unenlightened and much more oppressive age. Illustrative of this change in opinion is how a community responds to such a sentiment as that with which Protagoras c.
About the gods I am not able to know either that they are, or that they are not, or what they are like in shape, the things preventing knowledge being many, such as the obscurity of the subject and that the life of man is short.
Such statements would no doubt have been received with hostility, and probably with social if not even criminal sanctions, throughout the ancient world.
In most places in the modern world, on the other hand, such a statement could be made without the prospect of having to endure a pained and painful community response. This change reflects, among other things, a profound shift in opinion as to what is and is not a legitimate concern of government.
Whereas it could once be maintained that the law forbids whatever it does not permit, it is now generally accepted—at least wherever Western liberalism is in the ascendancy—that one may do whatever is not forbidden by law.
Furthermore, it is now believed that what may be properly forbidden by law is quite limited. Much is made of permitting people to do with their lives including their opinions as they please, so long The issue of censorship in school they do no immediate and evident usually physical harm to others.
This respect for individuality has its roots both in Christian doctrines and in the not unrelated sovereignty of the self reflected in state-of-nature theories about the foundations of social organization. Vital to this approach is the general opinion about the nature and sanctity of the human soul.
This can be put in terms of liberty—the liberty to become and to do what one pleases. The old, or traditional, argument against censorship was much less individualistic and much more political in its orientation, making more of another sense of liberty.
According to that sense, if a people is to be self-governing, it must have access to all information and arguments that may be relevant to its ability to discuss public affairs fully and to assess in a competent manner the conduct of the officials it chooses.
In the circumstances of a people actually governing itself, it is obvious that there is no substitute for freedom of speech and of the pressparticularly as that freedom permits an informed access to information and opinions about political matters.
Whether anyone who thus rules unjustly, or otherwise improperly, can be regarded as truly understanding and hence truly controlling his situation is a question not limited to these circumstances. Restraints upon speaking and publishingand indeed upon action generally, are fewer now than at most times in the history of the country.
This absence of restraints is reflected as well in the very terms in which these rights and privileges are described. It may even be to assume that the self has, intrinsic to it or somehow available to it independent of any social guidance, intimations of what it is and what it wants. Thus, liberation may be seen in the desire of most people to be free to pursue their own goals and life plans—which may involve a reliance upon standards and objectives that are solely their own.
It is tempting, in such circumstances, to adopt a radical subjectivism that tends to result in a thoroughgoing relativism with respect to moral and political judgments.
One consequence of this approach is to identify an ever-expanding array of forms and media of expression that are entitled to immunity from government regulation—including not only broadcast and print media books and newspapers but also text messaging and Internet media such as blogssocial networking sites, and e-commerce sites.
This means, among other things, that a people must be prepared and equipped to make effective use of its considerable political power.
Even those rulers who act without the authority of the people must take care to shape their people in accordance with the needs and circumstances of their regime.
This kind of effort need not be altogether selfish on the part of such rulers, since all regimes do have an interest in law and order, in common decency, and in a routine reliability or loyalty. It should be evident that a people entrusted with the power of self-government must be able to exercise a disciplined judgment: What is particularly difficult to argue for, and to maintain, is an arrangement that, while it leaves a people clearly free politically to discuss fully all matters of public interest with a view toward governing itself, routinely prepares that same people for an effective exercise of its considerable freedom.
In such circumstances, there are some who would take the case for, and the rhetoric of, liberty one step farther, insisting that no one should try to tell anyone else what kind of person he should be.
There are others, however, who maintain that a person is truly free only if he knows what he is doing and chooses to do what is right.
Anyone else, in their view, is a prisoner of illusions and appetites, however much he may believe that he is freely expressing himself. There are, then, two related sets of concerns evident in any consideration of the forms and uses of censorship. One set of concerns has to do with the everyday governance of the community; the other, with the permanent shaping of the character of the people.
The former is more political in its methods, and the latter is more educational. History of censorship It should be instructive to consider how the problem of censorship has been dealt with in the ancient world, in premodern times, and in the modern world. Care must be taken here not to assume that the modern democratic regime, of a self-governing people, is the only legitimate regime.It looks like you’re trying to find a page that may have been moved or not longer exists.
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The internet, e-commerce, mobile technology and social media have all transformed the way we live, learn, work, shop, and acquire information. A Clockwork Orange - Anthony Burgess. Penguin Burgess's vision of a horrifying dystopian near-future. A Clockwork Orange also contains an experiment in language: Burgess creates a new speech that is the teenage slang of the not-too-distant London.
Censorship in the U.S.A.
and in other countries, with consideration of particular cases of censorship. The Censorship Groups. More than a dozen government bodies review and enforce laws related to information flow within, into, and out of China.
The most powerful monitoring body is the Communist. Censorship exists to some extent in all modern countries, including the U.S.A., the U.K., Germany, France, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.