Support Aeon Donate now I have a rule about cellphones in class: You need to be able to turn off your phones and pay attention, I say. On the first day of class, they shut off their phones. A University of Nebraska-Lincoln study indicates that 80 per cent of college students send text messages during class.
History[ edit ] Precursors of transhumanism[ edit ] According to Nick Bostromtranscendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgameshas well as in historical quests for the Fountain of Youththe Elixir of Lifeand other efforts to stave off aging and death.
The late 19th to early 20th century movement known as Russian cosmism also incorporated some ideas which later developed into the core of the transhumanist movement. Fundamental ideas of transhumanism were first advanced in by the British geneticist J. Haldane in his essay Daedalus: Science and the Futurewhich predicted that great benefits would come from the application of advanced sciences to human biology—and that every such advance would first appear to someone as blasphemy or perversion, "indecent and unnatural".
In particular, he was interested in the development of the science of eugenics save our sports centre essay writer, ectogenesis creating and sustaining life in an artificial environmentand the application of genetics to improve human characteristics, such as health and intelligence.
His article inspired academic and popular interest. Bernala crystallographer at Cambridgewrote The World, the Flesh and the Devil inin which he speculated on the prospects of space colonization and radical changes to human bodies and intelligence through bionic implants and cognitive enhancement.
The term itself, however, derives from an earlier paper by the Canadian philosopher W. Up till now human life has generally been, as Hobbes described it, 'nasty, brutish and short'; the great majority of human beings if they have not already died young have been afflicted with misery… we can justifiably hold the belief that these lands of possibility exist, and that the present limitations and miserable frustrations of our existence could be in large measure surmounted… The human species can, if it wishes, transcend itself—not just sporadically, an individual here in one way, an individual there in another way, but in its entirety, as humanity.
The ideas raised by these thinkers were explored in the science fiction of the s, notably in Arthur C. A Space Odysseyin which an alien artifact grants transcendent power to its wielder. In the Material and Man section of the manifesto, Noboru Kawazoe suggests that: What I think will be known by all the people.
There is no more individual consciousness, only the will of mankind as a whole. Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an 'intelligence explosion,' and the intelligence of man would be left far behind.
Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make. InFM formerly F. Esfandiarya futurist who taught "new concepts of the human" at The New Schoolin New York Citybegan to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and world views transitional to posthumanity as " transhuman ".
Here, FM lectured on his " Third Way " futurist ideology. InVita-More authored the Transhumanist Arts Statement  and, six years later, produced the cable TV show TransCentury Update on transhumanity, a program which reached overviewers.
InEric Drexler published Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology,  which discussed the prospects for nanotechnology and molecular assemblersand founded the Foresight Institute.
As the first non-profit organization to research, advocate for, and perform cryonicsthe Southern California offices of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation became a center for futurists.
InMore, a strategic philosopher, created his own particular transhumanist doctrine, which took the form of the Principles of Extropy, and laid the foundation of modern transhumanism by giving it a new definition: Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, and a valuing of human or transhuman existence in this life.
InMore and Morrow founded the Extropy Institutea catalyst for networking futurists and brainstorming new memeplexes by organizing a series of conferences and, more importantly, providing a mailing list, which exposed many to transhumanist views for the first time during the rise of cyberculture and the cyberdelic counterculture.
Inphilosophers Nick Bostrom and David Pearce founded the World Transhumanist Association WTAan international non-governmental organization working toward the recognition of transhumanism as a legitimate subject of scientific inquiry and public policy.
The study of the ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to overcome fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies.
In possible contrast with other transhumanist organizations, WTA officials considered that social forces could undermine their futurist visions and needed to be addressed. Outline of transhumanism It is a matter of debate whether transhumanism is a branch of posthumanism and how this philosophical movement should be conceptualised with regard to transhumanism.
The latter is often referred to as a variant or activist form of posthumanism by its conservative Christian  and progressive   critics.
A common feature of transhumanism and philosophical posthumanism is the future vision of a new intelligent species, into which humanity will evolve and eventually will supplement or supersede it.
Transhumanism stresses the evolutionary perspective, including sometimes the creation of a highly intelligent animal species by way of cognitive enhancement i.After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go.
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