Life[ edit ] He was born in the outer district of Kaththe capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm now a part of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan   or Chorasmia. Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, and especially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. There he corresponded with Avicenna  and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars.
Nahavandi the art and science of attitudes towards science The various Quranic injunctions and Hadithwhich place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science.
Greek contributions to Islamic worldIndian influence on Islamic scienceChristian influences in Islamand Chinese influences on Islamic pottery During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered.
Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from GreekPersianIndianChineseEgyptianand Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew, and Latin. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians.
Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis  and the School of Edessa the pagan University of Harran   and the renowned hospital and medical academy of Jundishapurwhich was the intellectual, theological and scientific center of the Church of the East.
It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaqwith the support of Byzantine medicine. Many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of GalenHippocratesPlatoAristotlePtolemy and Archimedes.
Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background. With a new and easier writing systemand the introduction of paperinformation was democratized to the extent that, for probably the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from simply writing and selling books.
It was easier to manufacture than parchmentless likely to crack than papyrusand could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records. Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries.
According to Bernard Lewis: The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. During this period hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.
Madrasa The centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition helped to make education a central pillar of the religion in virtually all times and places in the history of Islam. Islamic "universities" of the Middle Ages were in fact madrasas, centers for the study of religious texts and law.
Only after the Arabs came in contact with the institutions of higher learning of the Christian Greek Roman Empire during their conquests did the madrasas begin to teach other subjects as well - but the only degree granted remained that of expert in religious law: The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid caliphate.
The Fatimids traced their descent to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and named the institution using a variant of her honorific title Al-Zahra the brilliant. Sharia Juristic thought gradually developed in study circles, where independent scholars met to learn from a local master and discuss religious topics.
Islamic theology Classical Islamic theology emerged from an early doctrinal controversy which pitted the ahl al-hadith movement, led by Ahmad ibn Hanbalwho considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only acceptable authority in matters of faith, against Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, who developed theological doctrines using rationalistic methods.The Art and Science of Leadership - Kindle edition by Afsaneh Nahavandi.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Art and Science of Leadership.
For undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership. Nahavandi’s text has an application emphasis with a cross cultural perspective on leadership.
This product is part of the following series. Click on a series title to see the full list of products in the series. Along with strong theoretical. Study The Art and Science of Leadership (6th Edition) discussion and chapter questions and find The Art and Science of Leadership (6th Edition) study guide questions and .
Introduction. This paper presents a model of holistic leadership that is proposed for inclusion with the integrative class leadership theories. Dr. Nahavandi’s expertise is in the field of leadership with a focus on cross-cultural issues. Her textbook The Art and Science of Leadership, currently in 7th edition, is one of the best-selling leadership textbooks in the United States.
Nahavandi, A. (). The Art and Science of Leadership (pp. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.