After the development of the microscopeattempts were made to fit microscopic organisms into either the plant or animal kingdoms.
Antibiotic is one of the most important commercially exploited secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi and Streptomyces and employed in a wide range.
Most of the antibiotics used today are from the microbes. Bacteria are easy to isolate, culture, maintain and to improve their strain. Bacillus species being the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant endospore formation and production of vital antibiotic like polymyxin, bacitracin etc.
In the present research study, screening of bacteria, fungi and Streptomyces with potential antibiotic activity was carried out. Among the microbes isolated and identified, Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Streptomyces spwere selected on the basis of their anti-bacterial activity.
It was observed that Penicillium chrysogenum metabolites showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with a zone of inhibition of 17mm, 11mm, Bacillus subtilis metabolites showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa measured as zone of inhibition of Antibiotics, in one form or another, have been in use for centuries.
Although a wide taxonomic range of microbes have the ability to produce antibiotics.
With advances in organic chemistry many antibiotics are now also obtained by chemical synthesis, such as the sulfa drugs. Drugs used in the chemotherapy of infectious diseases are classified into two groups.
Drugs that have been synthesized by chemical procedures in the laboratory are called synthetic drugs while those produced by bacteria and fungi are called antibiotics 2.
The antibiotics are widely distributed in the nature, where they play an important role in regulating the microbial population of soil, water, sewage, and compost.
Of the several hundred naturally produced antibiotics that have been purified, only a few have been sufficiently non-toxic to be of use in medical practice. Those that are currently of greatest use have derived from a relatively small group of microorganisms belonging to the genera Penicillium, Streptomyces, Cephalosporium, Micomonospora and Bacillus 3.
Antibiotics are low molecular-weight non-protein molecules produced as secondary metabolites, mainly by microorganisms that live in the soil. Therefore, many species such as Streptomyces, Bacillus and Penicillium have been studied continuously for their ability to produce antibiotics 4.
Currently, the target is to produce antibiotics such as polymyxin and bacitracin from Bacillus 5, 6. The apparent increase of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria during the past years and its possible implication in public health has led to an intensified surveillance of bacterial resistance in many countries.
Treatment of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains was one of the most traditional problems in the clinical field 9, This necessity encouraged the investigators to synthesize novel and more potent inhibitory compounds like azoles and quinolones derivatives 11, 12 to fight them.
However, the adverse effects and also appearance of bacterial or fungal resistances persuaded the investigators to study on natural products from microorganisms or herbal extracts to discover novel and safe lead compounds 9, Escherichia spp.
is an opportunistic pathogen, but investigations have shown that a rather limited number of serovars or clones also play an important and more specific role in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases.
Such clones often posses plasmids which provide them with special virulence traits.
The valuable book on “Determinative Bacteriology” by Professor F. D. Chester, published in , is now of very little assistance to the student, and all previous classiﬁcations are of still less value, especially as earlier systems of classiﬁcation were based entirely on morphologic characters.
BUCHANAN and N.E. GIBBONS (editors), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, eighth edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, , pp.
3 Rahn proposed the name Enterobacteriaceae before there was an International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and when the first Code was written , this name became. Bergeys Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition - MCB L Lab Experiment 4 Examination of Natural Microbes A.
Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. purposes of this experiment, you will have to rely upon the 8th or 9th Edition of Bergey's Manual of. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology is the main resource for determining the identity of prokaryotic organisms, emphasizing bacterial species, using every characterizing aspect.
The manual was published subsequent to the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, though the latter is still published as a guide for identifying unknown bacteria. leslutinsduphoenix.com - Buy Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology book online at best prices in India on leslutinsduphoenix.com Read Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology book reviews & author details and more at leslutinsduphoenix.com Free delivery on qualified leslutinsduphoenix.coms: 2.