Why scientific thinking depends on scientific knowledge Virtually everyone would agree that a primary, yet insufficiently met, goal of schooling is to enable students to think critically. Then too, there are specific types of critical thinking that are characteristic of different subject matter: In a recent survey of human resource officials1 and in testimony delivered just a few months ago before the Senate Finance Committee,2 business leaders have repeatedly exhorted schools to do a better job of teaching students to think critically.
Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.
Paul and Elder, The Paul-Elder framework has three components: They need to be able to identify the "parts" of their thinking, and they need to be able to assess their use of these parts of thinking.
Elements of Thought reasoning The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows: All reasoning has a purpose All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem All reasoning is based on assumptions All reasoning is done from some point of view All reasoning is based on data, information and evidence All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data All reasoning leads somewhere or has implications and consequences Universal Intellectual Standards The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.
Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder, the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning.
The intellectual standards include: Clarity Could you illustrate what you mean? Could you give me an example? Accuracy How could we check on that?
How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that?
Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Could you be more exact? Relevance How does that relate to the problem? How does that bear on the question? How does that help us with the issue?
Depth What factors make this difficult? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view?
Do we need to look at this in other ways?
Logic Does all of this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last one?The Top key competencies critical for leadership effectiveness are all of the following Q) EXCEPT: “articulate a tangible vision, values, and strategy.” A. “be people-friendly—approachable but assertive.”leslutinsduphoenix.com A consistent finding across all studies of the play behaviors of young girls and boys is that boys, on average, show more aggressive behavior than girls In free choice selections, boys typically choose toys that allow ___, while girls typically choose toys that allow or encourage leslutinsduphoenix.com://leslutinsduphoenix.com Business Communication Today, 12e (Bovee/Thill) Chapter 15 Writing and Completing Reports and Proposals 1) To gain credibility with your audience in a business report, do all of the following exceptleslutinsduphoenix.com Critical thinking includes all of the following except.
It is, perhaps, helpful to think of the research paper as a living thing, which grows and changes as the student explores, interprets, and evaluates sources related to a specific leslutinsduphoenix.com://leslutinsduphoenix.com When I was an undergraduate, I believed that the prevalence of positivism in the social sciences – the idea of studying social phenomena in an “objective” or “value-free” manner – was one of the great evils in the world.
According to the Center for 21st Century Skills, critical thinking ability includes all of the following skills, EXCEPT _____. A. reason effectively B. solve problems C.
communicate clearly D.
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