Mitogens substances outside the cell which stimulate cell proliferation and growth factors usually act on cell surface receptors to activate signalling molecules which affect gene transcription leading to accelerated cell growth. Oncogene proteins are also present in the intracellular signalling from integrins surface proteins mediating cell motility, attachment and associated growth signals. Whereas tumor suppressor gene mutations can be described as "faulty brakes", oncogenes can be characterized as "stuck accelerator pedal". Most growth factors act by binding to transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors on the cell surface membrane.
Outlook Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women, and the second main cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates dramatically since There are around 3.
The chance of any woman dying from breast cancer is around 1 in 37, or 2.
Inaroundnew diagnoses of breast cancer are expected in women, and around 40, women are likely to die from the disease. Awareness of the symptoms and the need for screening are important ways of reducing the risk. Breast cancer can affect men toobut this article will focus on breast cancer in women.
Fast facts on breast cancer: Here are some key points about breast cancer. More detail is in the main article.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women.
Symptoms include a lump or thickening of the breast, and changes to the skin or the nipple. Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, make it more likely to happen.
A range of treatments is available, including surgery, radiation therapyand chemotherapy. Many breast lumps are not cancerous, but any woman who is concerned about a lump or change should see a doctor. Symptoms The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.
An early diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chance of recovery. Stages Cancer is staged according to the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. There are different ways of staging breast cancer.
One way is from stage 0 to 4, but these may be broken down into smaller stages. Known as ductal carcinoma in situ DCISthe cells are limited to within a duct and have not invaded surrounding tissues. At the beginning of this stage, the tumor is up to 2 centimeters cm across and it has not affected any lymph nodes.
The tumor is 2 cm across and it has started to spread to nearby nodes. The tumor is up to 5 cm across and it may have spread to some lymph nodes. The cancer has spread to distant organs, especially the bones, liver, brain, or lungs.
Causes After pubertya woman's breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules, tiny glands that produce milk for breast-feeding. Tiny tubes, or ducts, carry the milk toward the nipple. In cancer, the body's cells multiply uncontrollably.
It is the excessive cell growth that causes cancer. Breast cancer usually starts in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body. Risk factors The exact cause remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely.This interactive feature offers a case vignette accompanied by essays that support either delivery at home or delivery in a hospital or hospital-affiliated birthing center.
Share your comments and. After Rockefeller’s unceremonious ejection, the yacht was then buzzed by Blackhawk helicopters before French fighter jets gave a warning pass overhead, whereupon the helicopters retreated.
Health news with a focus on fitness news, wellness coverage and living a healthy Southern California life. Case Study Breast Cancer Mrs.
Ann Thompson, age 52, felt a small hard painless lump in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast during regular breast self examination. Her mother and a cousin had had breast cancer. Mrs. A.T. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women, and the second main cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.
Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates. “Rachael Hardy.” iHuman Case Study-Breast Cancer After completing your iHuman Case Study, answer the following questions: Discuss the questions that would be important to include when interviewing a patient with this issue.